Synthesis

 

Compositionists have been experimenting with using digital badges as a way to assess student work (Reid & Paster, 2016; West-Puckett, 2016). This experimentation has followed educational research on gamification (Hanghøj, 2015; Tekinbas, Gresalfi, Peppler, Santo, & Gee, 2014) and research into how the use of digital badges affects student motivation (Yildirim, Kaban, Yildirim, & Çelik, 2016; Reid & Paster, 2016; Reid, Paster, & Abramovich, 2015; Abramovich, Schunn, & Higashi, 2013).

In my own classroom, prior to designing a system using digital badges, I used a version of contract grading (Blackston & Exton, 2014; Danielewicz & Elbow, 2009; Barlow, 1974, Newcomb & Warmbrod, 1974).

Students were often confused with contracts; they did not understand that contracts were designed to give them control over their grades. When I learned about Stephanie West-Puckett's digital badges, I thought giving my students a reward might help them see how they control their grades.

References



Abramovich, S., Schunn, C., & Higashi, R. M. (2013). Are badges useful in education? It depends upon the type of badge and expertise of learner. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(2), 217–232. doi: 10.1007/s11423-013-9289-2.

 

Barlow, R. M. (1974). An experiment with learning contracts. The Journal of Higher Education 45(6), 441-479, doi: 10.2307/1980762.

 

Blackston, A., & Exton, V. N. (2014). "Space to grow": Grading contracts for basic writers. Teaching English in the Two-Year College, 41(3), 278-293. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net.proxy.library.ohiou.edu/2374.OX/70495

 

Danielewicz, J., & Elbow, P. (2009). A unilateral grading

contract to improve learning and teaching. College Composition and Communication, 61(2), 244-268. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.proxy.library.ohiou.edu/stable/40593442.

 

Hanghøj, T. (2015). The school at play: Repositioning students

through the educational use of digital games and game dynamics. Proceedings of the European Conference on Games Based Learning, 1, 227-233. Retrieved from http://content.ebscohost.com/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=114725717&S=R&D=ehh&EbscoContent=dGJyMMvl7ESeprU4zOX0OLCmr06eqLBSr6y4SbSWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGusky1rrdKuePfgeyx43zx

 

Newcomb, L. H., & Warmbrod, J. R. (1974). The effect of contract grading on student performance. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED093967.

 

Reid, A. J., & Paster, D. (2016). A case study of digital badges

in composition courses. In L. Y. Muilenburg, & Z. L. Berge (Eds.), Digital badges in education: Trends, issue, and cases (pp. 189-202). Florence, US: Routledge. Retrieved from http://www.ebrary.com.

 

Reid, A. J., Paster, D., & Abramovich, S. (2015). Digital badges

in undergraduate composition courses: effects on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Computers and Education, 2(4), 377-

398. doi: 10.1007/s40692-015-0042-1.

 

Tekinbas, K. S., Gresalfi, M., Peppler, K., Santo, R., & Gee, J. P. (2014). Gaming the system: Designing with Gamestar Mechanic. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

West-Puckett, S. (2016). Syllabus. Retrieved from https://makercomp.wordpress.com/about/.

 

Yildirim, S., Kaban, A., Yildirim, G., Çelik, E. (2016). The effect of digital badges specialization level of the subject on the achievement, satisfaction and motivation levels of the students. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology 15(3), 169-182. Retrieved from http://www.library.ohiou.edu/ezpauth/redir/athens.php?http%3a%2f%2fsearch.ebscohost.com%2flogin.aspx%3fdirect%3dtrue%26db%3dehh%26AN%3d116811979%26site%3deds-live%26scope%3dsite.

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